Víctor Rodríguez Prieto & José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno
September 17th, 2012. SUAT-UCM
Situation of West Nile in european environment in 2012.
In the European Union West Nile (WN) cases have only been reported during 2012 in equine in Greece and Croatia (Figure 1). Greece began suffering the disease in horses in 2010. Since then, at least 59 horses have been affected by the WN virus infection. As for Croatia, this is the first time that WN outbreaks are reported, having affected six horses. This is not surprisingly, given the active movement that the virus is having in recent years in the area (Figure 1). Although official data is not available yet, it is likely that lineage 2 is the responsible for the outbreaks in both countries.
Fig. 1. West Nile outbreaks in horses in Europe and the Mediterranean from 1999 to 2012.
The blue stars show the outbreaks reported during 2012 in Croatia and Greece
(Source: self elaboration with data from WAHID-OIE; last update September 17th, 2012).
The European Society for Veterinary Virologyat its IX Congress elected Sánchez-Vizcaíno as its new ESVV president succeeding current president Professor Sándor Belák.
Interview with Professor José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno to Colombian Pig.
Prof. Sánchez-Vizcaíno will talk about ASF: Emerging threat (symptoms, diagnosis, control and prevention) in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) during the OIE/FAO Regional Workshop on Swine Health Management in South‐East and East from 22-24 August and the oral communication: Overview of the current research on African Swine Fever in the Vaccine and Diagnostcs for transboundary Animal Disease in the congress in Ames, Iowa (USA) from 17th to 19th of September.
African swine fever continues causing problems in the Tver region, located on the north of the Russian capital, Moscow. The first outbreaks in this region appeared in May 2011, with the involvement of 127 domestic pigs. Successive outbreaks occurred affecting both domestic and wild population of the area (in June, July and November 2011). This fact was identified as a signal of danger evolution of the disease, implying the existence of viral circulation in the area, and therefore an increased risk of dissemination and maintenance of ASF in the area.
These predictions have been recently confirmed with the detection of an infected boar in Lihoslavlsky area during the month of June of this year, revealing that the virus has remaines in the area during these months. This area, located in the Tver region, has not reported outbreaks before, so the alarms have started on the Russian Veterinary Services, to the insufficient knowledge of the extent of the problem. These Services has begun a program to prevent spread and eradication of ASF in the area, including the census of all animals in the region.
On the other hand, unofficial sources have reported the presence of several outbreaks in the Tula region, at the south of the capital. In fact, this area it has been considered by the Federal Veterinary Service (Rosselkhoznadzor) as the current hot spot of the disease in the country. Waiting for official notification to the OIE confirming these outbreaks this fact, the truth is that the spread and persistence of the disease in this region, where the pig population is much higher than many regions in the country, could mean significant economic losses, and further complications for the control of the disease.
The dissemination and persistence of ASF in these two regions is a step in the progressive approach of the disease to the northwest and therefore to the borders of neighboring countries such as Ukraine and Belarus and neighboring countries of the EU.
Fig.: ASF outbreaks from 2007 to 2012 (20 June) with swine density in the world.
(Source: own elaboration with data from OIE, 2012 and Glipha, 2000).
Sources: African Swine Fever outbreaks continue near Moscow (Pig progress News). Clarification of the ASF Virus in the Tver Region (Rosselkhoznadzor / Press about us)
Lina Mur Gil & José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno
We release two new sections about emerging diseases: Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness. Adding to those dedicated to West Nile, the African Swine Fever and the Schmallenberg virus. Also will be updated periodically.
African Horse Sickness (AHS) has been included in the list of diseases eligible for Official recognition of disease status by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).At the 80th General Session of the Assembly of OIE Delegates (20-25 May 2012) has approved the inclusion of the AHS in the procedure for the official recognition of disease status. The official recognition by the OIE of the AHS free status of Member Countries is of great importance to international trade, improving transparency in terms of animal health. In addition, this recognition is one of the most important legal links between the OIE and World Trade Organization (WTO).
The procedures for granting or modify the official status of a country are handled in an objective and transparent manner, in accordance with Standard Operating Procedure of the OIE.
Alumudena Sánchez Matamoros & José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno
Section of African Horse Sickness (AHS)
Denmark declares the first outbreak of the Schmallenberg disease.
The first season of occurrence of the Schmallenberg disease (SBD) is coming to an end. In fact, on June 1, the eight affected countries declared the resolution of the nearly 3,500 outbreaks suffered from December 2011 to May 2012 in sheep, cattle and goats (Figure 1).
Fig. 1: Number of outbreaks of Schmallenberg disease in the eight European countries affected until June 11th, 2012 (Source: self elaboration based on data in WAHID-OIE). In detail, the purple star denotes the first Schmallenberg disease outbreak in cattle in Fyn (Denmark); the blue cross indicates the first seropositive animals in Jutland.
However, on June 6, Denmark declared the first case of SBD on the island of Funen (Figure 1, detail). This case appeared in a cattle holding in Fyn, where a fetus born with compatible malformations appeared, and the virus could be detected by PCR. No symptoms in adult animals were detected in the holding during autumn 2011, but the mother presented antibodies against the virus.
Although this is the first confirmed case in Denmark, a total of 56 animals have come to study as compatible cases, but only this one has tested positive to the PCR. In addition, a few weeks before antibodies were detected in two cattle from a farm in Jutland (Figure 1, detail). Furthermore, the virus was detected in pools of Culicoides midges (unspecified species) collected in October 2011.
All these evidences suggest that, like the serotype 8 bluetongue virus, the Schmallenberg virus has been circulating over Europe up to quite northern latitudes. Further studies are needed to understand how this pathogen is transmitted.
Víctor Rodríguez Prieto & José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno